ST.PETERSBURG PHILHARMONIC ORCHESTRA
The St. Petersburg Philharmonic Orchestra, Russia's oldest symphonic ensemble, was founded in 1882 - when on the Order of Alexander III, the Court musical choir was established, the prototype of today’s «Honoured Collective of the Russian Federation».The Musicians' Choir was founded to perform in the «royal presence» at receptions and official ceremonies and at the balls, plays and concerts at the Royal Court. The pinnacle of this type of activity was the participation of the choir in 1896 in the pageantry of coronation of Nicholas II. In 1897 the Court Choir became the Court Orchestra and its musicians were transferred from the military department and given the same rights as other actors of royal theatres. In the early 20th century the orchestra was entitled to perform at commercial concerts for the general public. The series of concerts «Orchestral collections of musical news» saw the first Russian performances of Richard Strauss’ symphonic poems «Ein Heldenleben» and «Also sprach Zarathustra», Mahler’s First Symphony, Bruckner’s Ninth Symphony and Skriabin’s Poem of Ecstasy. The concerts included performances by one author, series of concerts by subscription, «historical series» accompanied by a lecture or an introductory address. Among the conductors were world-renowned musicians: Richard Strauss, Arthur Nikisch, Alexander Glazunov and Serge Koussevitsky.
In 1917 the Orchestra became the State Orchestra and in accordance with the Decree of 1921 it was incorporated into the newly founded Petrograd Philharmonic, the first of its kind in the country. Shortly after, unprecedented tours began with a whole pleiad of western conductors. Their names enjoy unquestioned authority in today’s musical world: Otto Klemperer (the conductor also conducted subscription concerts), Bruno Walter, and Felix Weingartner. As soloists, Vladimir Horowitz and Sergey Prokofiev (with his piano concertos) performed with the orchestra. On the initiative of the foreign conductors, the orchestra began to play the modern repertoire – Stravinsky, Schoenberg, Berg, Hindemith, Honegger and Poulenc. There is also heard the music of domestic composers. Back in 1918, directed by the composer, the orchestra performed for the first time the Classical Symphony of Prokofiev. And in 1926 Shostakovich debuted his First Symphony in the Grand Hall of Philharmonia (conducted by Nikolay Malko).
In 1934 the Orchestra became the first ensemble in the country received the name “Honoured Collective of the Russian Federation”. Four years later Evgeny Mravinsky joins the orchestra and during the half of a century, step by step, he creates one of the best orchestras in the world. In 1946 the first orchestra tour abroad goes through – the first one in the soviet history of performing. Since then regular tours start to many countries: concerts at Salzburg, Edinburgh and Savonlinna, “Maggio Musicale”, “Prague Spring”, “Warsaw Autumn”, “Week of Sibelius” and Grieg Festivals. The alliance between Mravinsky and Shostakovich is unique for the musical world. Many symphonies of the composer, including the Eighth one, dedicated to the conductor, were performed by Mravinsky for the first time. It is the way of creating the author's tradition of the interpretations of great scores.
In 1975 the name of Shostakovich is given to the Philharmonia. The ensemble acquaints residents of Leningrad with works by Myaskovsky, Basner, Petrov, Slonimsky, Falik, Ustvolskaya, Tishchenko, Sviridov, Shchedrin; it performs soviet premiers of works by Honneger, Hindemith, Bartók, Penderecki, Schönberg, Britten, Poulenc, as well as the works of old masters: Bach, Haendel, Vivaldi, Purcell, Corelli, Telemann, Pergolesi. There is no even one famous conductor not come to Leningrad. In 1952 collaboration with G.Rozhdestvensky starts. At a post of the second conductor replace each other: K.Sanderling, A.Jansons, M.Jansons. With the ensemble aspire to perform nearly all outstanding foreign conductors, being on tour in the USSR – L.Stokowski, L.Maazel, Z.Mehta, K.Masur; on the podium stand composers – Britten, Copland, Kodály, Lutosławski, Berio, Penderecki. Among the creative partners of the orchestra are such soloists as: V.Cliburn, G.Gould, A.Benedetti Michelangeli, I.Stern, S.Richter, E.Gilels, D.Oistrakh, E.Virsaladze, N.Petrov, G.Sokolov, V.Tretyakov, L.Kogan, N.Gutman, V.Krainev, V.Spivakov, A.Lyubimov.
In 1988 on the initiative of the orchestra, Yuri Temirkanov became its principal conductor. Recently Milanese “Corriere della sera” eloquently indicated the result of the more than twenty-year collaboration: “Yuri Temirkanov and the St.Petersburg Philharmonic Orchestra are something unique in world music panorama... Amazing musicians, everyone is a soloist, but in perfect ensemble and confluence with others”. Highlights of the last years were: performing the 7th Symphony by Shostakovich in the U.N.O. at the concert dedicated to the 60th anniversary of the WWII Victory; opening the Carnegie Hall season (the first among soviet orchestras), participation in the II Moscow World Orchestras Festival and opening of the I Rostropovich Week Moscow Festival; participation in Enescu Festival (Rumania) and in MiTo (Italy). Traditionally, busy tour schedule: concerts in Le Théâtre des Champs Elysées (Paris), Musikverein (Vienna), La Scala (Milan), Carnegie Hall (NY). The repertoire of the orchestra was enriched by Russian premiers: “Il canto sospese” by Nono, “The Third and the Last Testament” by Obukhov, Fifth Symphony by Grechaninov, Polish Requiem by Penderecki (under the author's baton); world premieres: “…al niente” by Kancheli, Symphonies by Segerstam, Slonimsky, Tishchenko; petersburg premieres: Seventh Symphony by Schubert, oratorio “L'enfance du Christ” by Berlioz, “Eine Messe des Lebens” by Delius, music of “Der Schneemann” by Korngold.
This season was opened at a birthday of Dmitri Shostakovich – under the direction of Maestro Temirkanov the orchestra performed the legendary “Leningrad” Symphony (to the 70 anniversary of the Symphony: 1941-2011). Another homage to Shostakovich will be the monographic concert led by his son, Maxim Shostakovich. At the International Festival “Musical Collection” under the baton of Vladimir Ashkenazy the ensemble will perform music by Tchaikovsky and Sibelius. And, of course, the most anticipated event of the season will be the Concert Series of the Principal Guest Conductor maestro Gennady Rozhdestvensky. Four concerts with music by Mozart, Martinů, Walton and Schnittke. Besides, the audience of St.Petersburg will meet quite a number of Russian premieres, and public in France, Italy, Monaco, Japan, Pepublic of Korea – another tours of the ensemble, reckoned among the best orchestra of the world.